Toxicity of oil-spill removers ('detergents') to marine life: An assessment using the intertidal barnacle Elminius modestus
Corner, E.D.S. and Southward, A.J. and Southward, E.C. (1968) Toxicity of oil-spill removers ('detergents') to marine life: An assessment using the intertidal barnacle Elminius modestus. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 48 (1). pp. 29-47.
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The oil-spill removers BP 1002, Gamlen, Slipclean and Dasic have been tested for toxicity using the barnacle Elminius modestus Darwin. All four substances were more toxic than the laboratory detergent Teepol-L, and Kuwait crude oil. BP 1002 was the most toxic of the oil-spill removers, and Dasic the least, but all were poisonous at concentrations between 2 and 10 ppm. Most of the toxicity of BP 1002 was provided by the' Kerosene extract' (' Kex ') used as an organic solvent; the solvent 'Shelsol R' used in the preparation of Dasic, was also highly toxic. Suspensions of these solvents in sea water soon lose toxicity, however, because of evaporation. The surfactant component of BP 1002, although of lower toxicity (25 ppm) is likely to be more persistent. Low concentrations of BP 1002 (0.5 and 1.0 ppm) inhibit the development of larvae while 3 ppm slows down the swimming activity of cyprids and prevents their settlement. Sensitivity to the poison varies with stage of development; the adults are far more resistant than the nauplii, being killed by 100 ppm of BP 1002, but 5 and 10 ppm slow down cirral activity. Possible modes of action of the poisons are discussed and conclusions made about their future use.
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