Experimental studies on the benthic phases of Haptophyceae. I. Effects of some experimental conditions on the release of coccolithophorids
Boney, A.D. and Burrows, A. (1966) Experimental studies on the benthic phases of Haptophyceae. I. Effects of some experimental conditions on the release of coccolithophorids. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 46 (2). pp. 295-319.
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Benthic phases of a Cricosphaera sp. (Plymouth Culture Collection no. 156), and of a coccolithophorid obtained from a filamentous plant found growing in the region of high-water mark at Borth, Cardiganshire, have been subjected to a variety of experimental conditions, and viability assessed in terms of their ability to release again the motile cells. Survival of the benthic cells has been observed in a salinity range of 3-236 %0'with liberation of coccolithophorids directly into the medium at salinities between 3-90 %0' In the salinity range 90-207 %0' liberation of coccolithophorids was observed on returning the benthic cells to 'normal' sea water after protracted periods of immersion in the media of higher salinities. Benthic cells were found to survive after slow evaporation of the medium and crystallization of the salt around them. Liberation of coccolithophorids has also been obtained after ageing of the culture (e.g. the motile cells have been obtained from an II-month-old culture). Continued growth of coccolithophorids has been observed at salinities between 6-90 %0' Continued formation of the benthic cells in media of high and low salt concentration resulted in a tendency for the release of coccolithophorids to occur over more restricted salinity ranges. Benthic cells were able to withstand long periods of exposure to air of high percentage relative humidity, and to survive temperatures of 35° and 37'5° C under the same conditions. In addition, the cells survived exposure to air at 0° C and freezing of sea water for periods of 3-4 days, with the subsequent release of coccolithophorids when again immersed in water at 16° C. The cells of the benthicphase were more tolerant of these conditions than the coccolithophorids. In their patterns of survival when subjected to raised sea temperatures, the benthic cells appeared tolerant of environmental conditions typical of' southern' cold-sensitive marine algae. However, in their ability to survive low temperatures they show similar properties to 'northern' heat-sensitive plants. Release of coccolithophorids was also obtained in acid and alkaline media. The data obtained as a result of these experimental studies are directly relevantto information on both the ecological distribution and the seasonal occurrence of these benthic forms in nature.
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